Cittadinanza, welfare e democrazia: problemi e prospettive
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The welfare systems in the liberal-democratic countries are undergoing structural changes. Often their evolution also concerns paradigm shifts. In this essay we try to understand what and how the new challenges to citizenship (social) emerge, mainly in an economic, social, political and cultural context (mainly due to the globalization process) completely different from the past. This requires a review of the allocative and distributive means of scarce resources. At the same time, the intense debate among intellectuals, scholars, policy makers, social workers raises again the questionabout principles, values and policiesat the basis of the welfare state. After delineating the evolution of the welfare state from the origin to present through the shift from the basic needs to the citizenship rights, the paper – from the point of view of political and social theory – analyzes the crisis of the welfare and reform proposals in place: the focus is the concept of citizenship whose definition necessarily reflects the deep change of our western societies. Democratic institutions, from the supranational to the local level, are faced with a change in the ways in which we define social policies, because the satisfaction of various social rights requires a redefinition of citizenship in heterogeneous and selective sense; such requests from universal are becomingnow more detailed: the homogeneous and standardized responses give way to demands of differentiated, pluralistic and multicultural public goods.